revised February 8, 2003

 

 

DECORATIVE STONES IN THE PRE-OTTOMAN ISLAMIC BUILDINGS OF CAIRO, EGYPT

 

Part I:

 

DESCRIPTION OF STONE VARIETIES

 

by

 

Prof. James A. Harrell, Ph.D.

Department of Environmental Sciences (Mail Stop #604)

The University of Toledo

Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390, USA

Tele: 419-530-2193

Fax: 419-530-4421

E-mail: james.harrell@utoledo.edu

 

with the assistance of

 

Prof. Lorenzo Lazzarini, Ph.D.

Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia

Dipartimento di Storia dell'Architettura

Laboratorio di Analisi dei Materiali Antichi

Palazzo Badoer, San Polo, n. 2554

30125 Venezia, Italia

E-mail: lorenzo@brezza.iuav.unive.it

 

and

 

Mr. Matthias Bruno

Via D'Ascanio, n. 1A

00186 Roma, Italia

E-mail: matthias@libero.it

 

 

NOTE 1:        Megascopic descriptions are provided for each stone variety based on examples seen in Cairo mosques. After each description, the Roman name (if known) and traditional Italian name for the stone are given. Only the most common Italian names are given but the reader should be aware that some stones are known by multiple names as will be evident in such references as DW92, G88, MSG89, M85, PB98 and R01. Alphanumeric codes (e.g., "R01" for Ricci 2001) are used for references cited in each description and the following abbreviations are used within the associated parentheses: p = pages, f = figure, t = table and pl = plate.

 

  NOTE 2:        After each description, "Buildings" lists those Cairo buildings where the stone can be found (these are identified by their official antiquities number), and "Uses" indicates how much of and for what purpose the stone was used in Cairo. The relative amounts indicated apply only to the visited buildings known to have decorative stones inside, excluding the omni-present marble columns flanking mihrabs. The amounts are defined as follows: abundant = found in a majority of the buildings, usually as numerous pieces; common = found in a large minority of the buildings with anywhere from a few to numerous pieces in each; scarce = found in a small minority of the buildings, usually not more than a few pieces in each; and rare = found in only a few buildings at most, usually as one to a few pieces in each.

 

  NOTE 3:       For topographical and petrological surveys of ancient Egyptian quarries and quarry stones see Aston et al. (2000) and Klemm and Klemm (1993). See JAH's World Wide Web site for color photos of ancient Egyptian quarry stones  (http://www.eeescience.utoledo.edu/egypt/), and see BH91 (Brown and Harrell 1991) for petrological terminology used in the stone descriptions.

 

 

EGYPTIAN STONES 

 

From the Eastern Desert      

 

E1        MP imperial porphyry: Stone — andesite-dacite porphyry with purplish-red, or rarely reddish black, aphanitic groundmass and pale pink to white phenocrysts (up to 5 mm). Source — Mons Porphyrites (northeast flank of Gebel Dokhan). Quarried — Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods, and again possibly during Ptolemaic period (c. unknown) and from 1st through 4th c. AD of the Roman period. Roman name — lapis porphyrites (= purple stone); and Italian names — porfido rosso Egiziano or antico (= Egyptian or ancient red porphyry). References and Photos — M85 (p 64-65; 698, 702 in pl 21), G88 (p 122-123; f 90-91), MSG89 (p 274; f 116a), AN89 (p 35-46; 2 on p 112), DW92 (a in pl 1), DK92 (p 119-121; 23 in pl 54f), KK93 (p 379-395; pl 14.1-15.1), BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 9-10; pl 53-56), AHS00 (p 48-49) and R01 (pl 18: C1-C7).

 

             Buildings: 24, 32, 35, 43, 49, 66, 97, 99, 114, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 133, 134, 138, 147, 149, 152, 175, 187, 189, 190, 203, 218, 220, 248, 255, 269, 281, 349;  SAB, SCB, SHP.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer (including rotae), and rare columns and door lintels.

 

E2        MP greenish black porphyry: Stone — andesite-dacite porphyry with greenish-black aphanitic groundmass and white to mainly pale green phenocrysts (up to 5 mm). Source — Mons Porphyrites (northeast flank of Gebel Dokhan). Quarried — 1st through 4th c. AD. Roman name — lapis hieracitis (= hawk stone); and Italian name — porfido verde Egiziano or antico (= Egyptian or ancient green porphyry). References and Photos — M85 (p 65; 714 in pl 21), G88 (p 133-135; f 93), MSG89 (p 278; f 120a), KK93 (p 379-395; pl 15.3), BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 10; pl 58), AHS00 (p 48-49) and R01 (pl 18: C9).

 

             Buildings: 49, 60, 66, 97, 99, 114, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 133, 134, 138, 147, 149, 151, 175, 187, 189, 190, 218, 255; SAB, SCB.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer (including rotae).

 

E3        MP black porphyry: Stone — andesite-dacite porphyry with black aphanitic groundmass and pale green or pink to mainly white phenocrysts (up to 5 mm). This is really just a gradational, subvariety of E2. Source — Mons Porphyrites (northeast flank of Gebel Dokhan). Quarried — 1st through 4th c. AD. Roman name — lapis porphyrites niger (= black porphyrites stone); and Italian name — porfido nero Egiziano or antico (= Egyptian or ancient black porphyry). References and Photos — M85 (p 65; 719 in pl 21), G88 (p 138; f 92), MSG89 (p 272; f 114a), BH95 (t1-2), PB98 (p 10; pl 57), AHS00 (p 48-49) and R01 (pl 18: C8).

 

             Buildings: 66, 99, 133, 138, 149, 152, 187, 190.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer.

 

E4        WB quartz diorite: Stone — medium- to coarse-grained quartz diorite, mottled light gray and greenish black, occasionally with what appear to be straight, white veins but which are actually bleached zones along fractures. Source — Wadi Barud. The Wadi Barud quarry has long been known for another variety of quartz diorite which is the Italian "granito bianco e nero" (= white and black granite) which is not used in the Islamic buildings of Cairo (photos — M85 [p 69; 798 in pl 23], G88 [p 150; f 106], MSG89 [p 217; f 67a], BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 [p 11; pl 63]), HL02 and R01 (pl 19: B3-B4).

 

             The two varieties of Wadi Barud stone differ only in their textures: in comparison with granito bianco e nero, the quartz diorite found in the Islamic buildings is slightly finer grained and exhibits a much greater degree of intergrowth between the light and dark minerals (HL02). This new variety has not been previously reported in the literature, and its source was discovered by JAH only in 1997 (the quarry workings are very close to those for granito bianco e nero). It is proposed that the two varieties of Wadi Barud quartz diorite hereafter be referred to as granito bianco e nero del Cairo (the variety known mainly from Cairo's Islamic buildings) and granito bianco e nero di Santa Prassede (the better known variety, good examples of which are found in Rome's Church of Santa Prassede). In this document WB quartz diorite refers only to the del Cairo variety of granito bianco e nero. The so-called granito scuro e tigrato may be another Italian name for this variety. Roman name — probably marmor Tiberianum (= Tiberius' marble). Quarried — 1st and 2nd c. AD.

 

             Buildings: 66, 123, 133, 175, 190, 203; SCB.

 

             Uses: scarce wall veneer.

 

E5        WUS diorite: Stone — coarse- to mainly very coarse-grained pegmatitic diorite with large, pointed greenish black crystals (up to 6 cm but mostly 1-4 cm) in a light gray to pale pink groundmass. Source — Wadi Umm Shegilat. Quarried — late Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods, and again in 1st and 2nd c. AD of the Roman period. Roman name — unknown; and Italian name — granito della colonna (= granite of the column). References and Photos — M85 (p 69; 802 in pl 23), G88 (p 150-152; f 108), MSG89 (p 220; f 70a), AN89 (10 on p 113), GLM92 (t 1-5); BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 11; pl 61-62), AHS00 (p 30-31), HB02 and R01 (pl 1: A4 & pl 19: B7-B9).

 

             Buildings: 18, 35, 43, 49, 66, 99, 123, 125, 133, 134, 152, 175, 189, 190, 203, 218, 255, 549; SAB, SCB.

 

             Uses: common wall veneer (including rotae).

 

E6        MC gneiss: Stone — medium-grained tonalite gneiss, speckled light gray and greenish black. Source — Mons Claudianus (near Wadi Fatiri el-Bayda). Quarried — 1st through 3rd c. AD. Roman name — marmor Claudianum (= Claudius' marble); and Italian name — granito del foro (= granite of the forum). References and Photos — M85 (p 69; 796 in pl 23), G88 (p 148-150; f 112), MSG89 (p 222-223; f72a), AN89 (16 on p 113), DW92 (c in pl 1), GLM92 (t 1-5), KK93 (p 395-408; pl 16.1-16.2), BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 10-11; pl 60), HBL99, AHS00 (p 34) and R01 (pl 19: C9).

 

             Buildings: 121, 133, 190, 204, 218; SAB.

 

             Uses: rare floor and (mainly) wall veneer.

 

E7        WUE serpentinite: Stone — medium- to coarse-grained serpentinite, mottled light yellowish-green and dark green. Source — Wadi Umm Esh (near Wadi Atalla). Quarried — Roman period, c. unknown, and again extensively in the 20th century. Roman name — unknown but possibly lapis batrachites (= frog stone); and Italian names — serpentina moschinata (= veined/spotted [like moss] serpent) and verde ranocchia (= green frog). References and Photos — M85 (p 63; 668, 671 in pl 20), G88 (p 235-237; f 115), MSG89 (p 291; f 129a), DK92 (p 136-139; 30 in pl 54h), KK93 (p 376-378; pl 13.1-13.2), BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 12; pl 67-68), AHS00 (p 57-58) and R01 (pl 5: B1).

 

             Buildings: 13, 38, 120,133, 162?, 218.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

E8        WH graywacke: Stone — (meta) graywacke sandstone to mainly siltstone, dark gray or greenish-gray to mainly grayish green; slightly metamorphosed. Source — Wadi Hammamat (Roman Mons Basanites). Quarried — late Predynastic period through the Roman period until 3rd c. AD. Roman name — lapis basanites (= touchstone); and Italian names — pietra bekhen (= bekhen stone, where bekhen is the ancient Egyptian name), basanite (from basanites), and basalto verde (from the mistaken belief that the rock is basalt). References and Photos — M85 (p 64; 692 in pl 21), G88 (p 111-117), MSG89 (p 266; f 110a), AN89 (p 56-63), HB92a and HB92b, KK93 (p 355-376; pl 12.1, 12.3), BH95 (t 1-2) and AHSf.

 

             Buildings: 112, 120, 121, 123, 125, 130, 133, 134, 138, 203, 218,248,  269?, SCB.

 

             Uses: common wall and floor veneer, especially as trim (narrow strips) around larger stone panels.

 

E9        WH conglomerate: Stone — (meta) conglomerate with multicolored, well rounded pebbles and cobbles in a green, sandy groundmass; slightly metamorphosed. Source — Wadi Hammamat (Roman Mons Basanites). Quarried — 20th, 25th and 30th Dynasties, the Roman period until 3rd c. AD, and again, to a limited extent, in the 1970's. Roman name — lapis hexacontalithos (= stone of sixty stones); Byzantine name = lapis hecatontalithos (= stone of a hundred stones); and Italian names — breccia verde d'Egitto or antica (= Egyptian or ancient green breccia) and centopietre (= one hundred stones). References and Photos — M85 (p 64; 694 in pl 21), G88 (p 117-121; f 120), MSG89 (p 195; f 48a), AN89 (12 on p 113), DK92 (p 59-60; 4 in pl 54a), KK93 (p 355-376; pl 12.5-12.6), HB92a and HB92b, BH95 (t 1-2), PB98 (p 12; pl 69-70), AHS00 (p 57-58), R01 (pl 15: C1-C3) and HBLf.

 

             Buildings: 32, 38, 44, 45, 121, 133, 138, 175, 190.

 

             Uses: scarce wall veneer and columns.

 

Probably From the Eastern Desert

 

E10      Porfido nero grafico: appears to be a rock similar to both the black porphyry from Mons Porphyrites (E3) and Wadi Umm Towat, where the latter is another Roman quarry in the Eastern Desert near Gebel Dokhan, the rock from which is not found in Cairo. Like the stone from Wadi Umm Towat, it has common large white quartz inclusions. Source — no quarry is known but it is probably in the Mons Porphyrites/Gebel Dokhan area. Quarried — Roman period, c. unknown. Italian name — translates as "graphic black porphyry." References and Photos — G88 (p 139; f 95), MSG89 (p 273; f 115a) and R01 (pl 18: B9).

 

             Buildings: 175, 190.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

From Elsewhere in Egypt

 

E11      Aswan granite: Stone — coarse- to very coarse-grained granite, usually pinkish or reddish overall but occasionally darker with pink and black mottling. Source — East Bank of the Nile River at Aswan. Quarried — Early Dynastic through Roman periods, and again extensively in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ptolemaic name — lithos pyrrhopoecilos (= red-spotted stone); Roman names — lapis syenites (= stone of Syene, the Greek name for Aswan) and lapis or marmor Thebaicus (= stone or marble of Thebes); and Italian name — granito rosso or Sienite (= red granite or granite of Syene). References and Photos — M85 (p 67; 749 in pl 22), G88 (p 145-147; f 111), MSG89 (p 225-226; f 74a), AN89 (17 on p 113), DW92 (p 158-159; d in pl 1), DK92 (p 81-86; 10-11 in pl 54c), GLM92 (t 1-5), KK93 (p 305-339; pl 10.1-10.6), BH98, PB98 (p 12-13; pl 71), AHS00 (p 36-37) and R01 (pl 17: A5, C1-C3, C7).

 

             Buildings: 1, 13, 27, 35?, 43, 44, 45, 99, 112, 120, 123, 129, 130, 143, 149, 152, 175, 187, 184, 190, 204, 215, 248, 252, 255, 257, 349, 549; MNM, SAB, SHP.

 

             Uses: common columns, and door lintels and sills (and rarely jambs).

 

E12      Aswan granodiorite: Stone — coarse- to mainly medium-grained granodiorite, dark gray overall with occasionally large light gray or pale pink crystals (this is the so-called but incorrectly named "black granite" of Egypt). Source - same as Aswan granite. Quarried — same as Aswan granite, but in much smaller quantities. Italian name — granito nero or bigio (= black or gray granite). The Ptolemaic and Roman names for the Aswan granite were also sometimes applied anciently to the granodiorite. However, the Romans may have called this stone lapis aethiopicus (= Ethiopian stone). References and Photos — G88 (p 147-148), MSG89 (p 242; f 73a), DK92 (p 70-76; 9 in pl 54c, and 13 in pl 54d), GLM92 (t 1-5), KK93 (p 339-353; pl 11.1-11.4), BH98, AHS00 (p 36-37) and R01 (pl 17: A5-A7).

 

             Buildings: 18, 24, 33, 43, 66, 119, 120, 121, 123, 131, 133, 138, 143, 149, 151, 152, 175, 182, 184, 189, 190, 204, 211, 215, 255, 344; MNM, SAB, SHP.

 

             Uses: common columns, wall and floor veneer, and door lintels and sills.

 

E13      Banded travertine: Stone — dense (nonporous) travertine with alternating bands of white and light brown calcite. This is the so-called "Egyptian alabaster" of archaeologists and art historians, and the "calcitic or calcareous alabaster" of some geologists. Source — there are several quarries in Middle Egypt on the East Bank of the Nile between Wadi Assiut in the south and Wadi Araba in the north. Quarried — late Predynastic period through the Roman period until 3rd or 4th c. AD, and again extensively in the 19th and 20th centuries. Roman names — lapis alabastrites (= stone of Alabastrum) and lapis onyx (= onyx stone); and Italian names — alabastro egiziano or onice (= Egyptian or onyx alabaster) and alabastro cotognino (= alabaster like quince, a type of yellow apple). References and Photos — M85 (p 37; 1, 5 and 17 in pl 1), G88 (p 215-218; f 224), MSG89 (p 140-141; f 4a-4b), AN89 (p 52-53; 10 on p 112), H90, DK92 (p 43-46; 1-2 in pl 54a), KK93 (p 199-223; pl 6.3-6.6), PB98 (p 9; pl 49-52), AHS00 (p 59-60) and R01 (pl 10: C1-C4 & pl 11: B2-B7).

 

             Buildings: 133, 503; MNM.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

E14      Sparry travertine: Stone — dense (nonporous) travertine consisting of an intergrowth of large, pale amber or white to colorless sparry calcite crystals with little or no banding. Source — possibly Wadi Garawi near Helwan (H90), but there may be other Egyptian sources not yet discovered. Quarried (in Egypt) — Old Kingdom and possibly later. Roman and Italian names — none known.

 

             Building: 133.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer.

 

E15      Basalt: Stone — aphanitic black basalt. Source and Quarried — the only known quarry is in the northern Faiyum Desert and dates from the Old Kingdom with minor Roman workings, but there are outcrops near Cairo that may have been worked in Islamic times, such as at Abu Zabal. This stone was widely used for pavements in Old Kingdom pyramid temples and these are probably the source of much of the basalt used during the Islamic period. References and Photos — DK92 (p 51-54), KK93 (p 413-422; pl 13.5), HB95 and AHS00 (p 23-24).

 

             Buildings: 43?, 99, 133, 190, 203; SHP (this list is very incomplete). Basalt was widely used on the exteriors of buildings but such applications were usually not noted in the present study.

 

             Uses: scarce construction blocks for exterior walls, especially around entrances (as in ablaq masonry). Most black blocks used in ablaq are either black limestone, or light-colored marble or limestone painted black. Basalt was also apparently used for road pavement at the medieval city gate of Bab Zuwayla (# 199).

 

E16      Siliceous sandstone (a.k.a. 'quartzite'): Stone - mainly brown but occasionally light gray or red, pebbly quartz-cemented sandstone. Sources — Gebel Ahmar near Cairo, and Gebel Gulab near Aswan. The stone found in Cairo probably comes from Gebel Ahmar. Quarried — Early Dynastic through Roman periods at Gebel Ahmar, and New Kingdom through Roman periods at Gebel Gulab. References and Photos — DK92 (p 95-99), KK93 (p 283-303; pls 8.1-9.6) and AHS00 (p 53-54).

 

             Buildings: 32, 38, 44, 119, 221, 248.

 

             Uses: scarce door sills, and rare columns.

E17      Mokattam limestone: Stone — pale yellow to light gray limestone with scarce to abundant, large, discoidal nummulitid fossils, and exceptionally with abundant oyster shells. Source — Gebel Mokattam near the Citadel (and probably also the local ancient limestone monuments). Quarried — Old Kingdom through Islamic periods at Zawyet Nasr (and possibly other localities, such as Tura and Masara). References and Photos — DK92 (p 61-969; 7-8 in pl 54b), H92, KK93 (p 50-65; pl 1.2-1.6) and AHS00 (p 40-42).

 

             A better quality limestone came from further south on Gebel Mokattam near Tura and Masara. This is a little harder with rare to absent megascopic fossils, and has a uniform fine-grained texture and light gray color. This was the stone used for the exterior casing on the Giza and Saqqara pyramids, most of which was stripped off and reused during the Islamic period.

 

             Buildings and Uses: the ordinary variety was used in all buildings as the principal masonry construction material. The Tura-Masara variety was probably the stone used for the intricately carved domes, minarets and facades.

 

E18      Astracane dorato d'Egitto: this newly named stone superficially resembles the true astracane dorato from Tunisia (see below) and the two are easily confused. Astracane dorato d'Egitto is like the normal Mokattam limestone, but is recrystallized and typically yellowish with abundant large oysters and other smaller fossils (Astirea facies). Its greater hardness, due to recrystallization, allows it to take a good polish. Source — unknown, but probably the Mokattam limestone between the latitudes of Cairo and Beni Suef. This stone was probably not quarried prior to the Islamic period.

 

             Astracane dorato [or castracani]: mottled light and dark yellow to occasionally orange or pink, limestone with pelecypod fragments that vary from rare to abundant and nearly microscopic to megascopic. Source — Henkhir el-Kasbat (ancient Thuburbo Maius), Tunisia. Quarried — Roman period, c. unknown. Roman name — unknown; and Italian name — translates as "gilded (gold-plated) astrakhan", where an astrakhan is a woolly lamb skin (it has also been suggested that the stone is named after the Russian city of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea but this seems unlikely). References and Photos — M85 (p 41; 135 in pl 4), G88 (p 203-205; f 209), MSG89 (p 201; f 55a-55b), AN89 (14 on p 113), PB98 (p 13; pl 79) and R01 (pl 8: A2-A7).

 

             Buildings: 18, 32, 49, 66, 97, 99, 114, 116?, 117, 119?, 121, 123, 130, 133, 134, 138, 149, 175?, 187, 182, 190, 203, 215, 218, 248, 281; SCB.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, and scarce columns.

 

E19      Broccatelli d'Egitto: limestone breccia with white to light gray, angular, pebble- to cobble-size clasts of micritic limestone and chert in a red matrix. It can be confused with the similar-looking breccia corallina. It was used for small vessels and animal figurines from the late Predynastic period through the Old Kingdom. Thereafter (Middle Kingdom through Roman period) it was rarely used and then only for small sculptures. There are no known ancient or medieval quarries, but the rock is widely distributed between Esna in the south and El-Minya in the north. The best-known outcrops are in Wadi Abu Gelbana, near Achmin, where there are modern quarries. References and Photos — DK92 (p 57-58; 3 in pl 54a), and KK93 (p 189-191; pl 6.2).

 

             Buildings: 43?, 66, 120, 121?, 133, 162.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer (including rotae).

 

IMPORTED STONES   These are referred to by their traditional Italian names. The descriptions and referenced photos apply only to the varieties seen in Cairo.

 

I1         Africano: (meta) tectonic marble breccia with white, yellow, red to mainly pink, rounded to angular, cobble- to pebble-size marble clasts in a black (or occasionally grayish, brown or dark green) matrix with white quartz-filled veins; slightly metamorphosed. Source — Sigacik (ancient Teos), 45 km southeast of Izmir, central Aegean coast of Turkey. Quarried — 1st c. BC to 2nd c. AD. Roman name — marmor luculleum (= Lucullus' marble, after the consul Lucius Lucullus who first introduced it to Rome); and Italian name — from the black (African-like) matrix and/or from its original (but incorrect) attribution to Africa. Africano rosso (red) and verde (green) varieties are recognized. References and Photos — M85 (p 54-55; 418, 421 in pl 13), G88 (p 174-178; f 132, 133, 197), MSG89 (p 133-135; f 1b, 1d), AN89 (p 49-50; 13 on p 112), DW92 (p 157; g in pl 1), PB98 (p 8; pl 33-36) and R01 (pl 15: A3-A9, B4-B8, C1-C9).

 

             Buildings: 43, 123, 133.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I2         Bianco e nero antico: tectonic limestone breccia with black or dark grey, angular, pebble- to cobble-size clasts in a white matrix. Source — Aubert near St. Girons (Lez Valley)  in the central Pyrenees Mountains, southern France. Quarried — 3rd c. AD through Byzantine period. Roman name — marmor celticum or aquitanicum (= marble of the Celts or Aquitaine); French name — grand antique; and Italian name — translates as "ancient white and black". References and Photos — M85 (p 57; 545 in pl 16), G88 (p 196-199; f 203), MSG89 (p 154-156; f 14a-14c), AN89 (1 on p 112), DW92 (p 156; a in pl 2), PB98 (p 15; pl 89-90) and R01 (pl 1: C5-C6).

 

             Buildings: 35, 38, 43, 67, 99, 121, 123, 125, 133, 187, 189, 190, 218; SAB.

 

             Uses: scarce wall veneer.

 

I3a        Bigio antico (a.k.a., Bigio di Asia Minore): marble with a mottling of dark gray to black and light gray patches. It is similar to bigio lumachellato (below) but with few or no fossils. Source — near Moria on the Island of Lesbos, eastern Aegean Sea, Greece, but also in other parts of Greece, including Macedonia, Attica, Crete and others. The different sources are difficult to tell apart megascopically; however, all bigio antico reported in this document apparently comes from Lesbos and is so indicated by the addition of the Italian "di Lesbo". Quarried — 1st through 3rd c. AD. Roman name — marmor Lesbium (Lesbos variety only); and Italian name — translates as "ancient gray". References and Photo — G88 (p 179-180; f 201), MSG89 (p 158-159; f 16a), LPT99 and R01 (pl 1: C4).

 

             Buildings: 1, 15?, 31, 32, 43, 66, 97, 99, 121, 130?, 133, 138, 143, 175, 190, 204, 218, 220, 248, 319; SAB.

 

             Uses: common wall and floor veneer, and rare columns.

 

I3b       Bigio lumachellato (a subvariety of the Lesbos bigio antico): dark gray marble with light gray to white patches which vary from irregular to loop-shaped cross-sections of rudist pelecypods (Megalodon sp.) and rare coral. Source and Quarried — same as the bigio antico from Lesbos. Roman name — marmor Lesbium; and Italian name — translates as "gray lamellibranch" (or "gray fossiliferous"), where lamellibranch is another name for mollusc pelecypods but is generally used by Italian stonecutters to mean any conspicuous fossils. References and Photos — M85 (p 59), G88 (p 179-180), MSG89 (p 158-159; f 16b), AN89 (p 65-66), DW92 (p 158), LPT99 and R01 (pl 7: B8).

 

Buildings: 32, 33, 43, 99, 114, 117, 120, 123, 133, 134, 143, 147, 187, 203, 218?, 220, 248, 319, 344; SCB.

 

             Uses: common wall and floor veneer, and columns.

 

I4         Breccia corallina: limestone breccia with white to yellowish, angular, pebble- to boulder-size clasts of micritic limestone with sharp, well-defined outlines. The matrix is red to organish and, less often, pinkish or brownish in color. It tends to weather quickly and so often has a fractured, pitted appearance. It is similar in appearance to the broccatelli d'Egitto and, to a lesser extent, cipollino rosso brecciato. Source — near Vezirhan and probably other sites in the province of Bilecik (in ancient Bithynia), northwestern Turkey. Quarried — 1st c. BC into the Roman period, and again in modern times. Roman name — marmor sagarium (= marble of Sagarius, a reference to the Sakarya River which is near the quarry); and Italian name — translates as "coral breccia", where corallina comes from the pink/red matrix which has the same color as some corals. The stone tends to weather quickly (i.e., old slabs usually have a fractured and pitted appearance). References and Photos — M85 (p 45-46; pl 7), G88 (p 238-240; f 247, 251), MSG89 (p 166-167; f 22a, 22c), AN89 (15 on p 112), DW92 (p 157-158; e in pl 1), PB98 (p 8-9; pl 41-44), L02 and R01 (pl: A5-A7, B5-B7, C1-C8). 

 

             Buildings: 133.

 

             Uses: rare floor veneer.

 

I5         Breccia Medicea (a variety of Breccia di Serravezza antica): marble breccia with light to dark gray, yellow and green, angular, gravel-size marble clasts in a purplish matrix. Source — near Monte Corchia, Serravezza, Stazzema and Versilia, province of Lucca, Apuane Alps, northwestern Italy. Quarried — possibly Roman period (c. unknown) but also during the Renaissance and later. Roman — unknown; Italian name translates as "Medici breccia", apparently a reference to the Medici family. Reference for breccia Medicea — LT99. References and Photos for breccia di Serravezza antica — M85 (p 51, 381 in pl 12), G88 (p 240-241), MSG89 (p 194, f 47a) and PB98 (p 16; pl 95).

 

             Buildings: 66, 120, 147.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I6         Breccia rossa appenninica: marble breccia with white, brown and pink, gravel-size marble clasts in a dark brownish red to purplish matrix. Clasts are rounded to mainly angular, and deformed (elongated and/or with serrated edges). Source — near Pegazzino and Biassa in the Apuan Alps, northwestern Italy. Quarried — Roman period (c. unknown), and again from the 17th c. to the present. Roman name — unknown; Italian name translates as "Appennine [Mtns.] red breccia". References and Photos — M85 (p 53), MSG89 (p 189, f 42a), PB98 (p 15-16; pl 94), BL99a and R01 (pl 3: C7).

 

             Buildings: 66, 130, 133, 138, 190, 233?.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer.

 

I7         Breccia di Settebassi: marble breccia with white to yellowish and rarely red, angular, pebble- to cobble-size clasts of fine-grained (< 1 mm) marble in a reddish to purple matrix. The clasts tend to be tightly packed and show parallel alignment. Source — Island of Skyros (various localities) and possibly other neighboring islands, western Aegean Sea, Greece. Quarried — 1st c. BC into the Roman period. Roman name — marmor scyrium or scireticum [or scyreticum] (= marble of Skyros); and Italian name — translates as "breccia of Settebassi", where Settebassi is the name of a villa near Rome where this breccia was found. The stone is also sometimes referred to by the Italian version of its Roman name: marmo di sciro. Some of what has been identified here as breccia di Settebassi may be the similar-looking breccia Medicea or breccia di Serravezza antica. References and Photos — M85 (p 47-48; 282 in pl 9 and 311 in pl 10); G88 (p 232-235; f 240), MSG89 (p 192-193; f 46a-46c), AN89 (3 on p 112), DW92 (p 156-157; d in pl 2), PB98 (p 5; pl 5-8), LT99b and R01 (pl 4: A1-A3, B2-B3, C1-C9).

 

             Buildings: 24?, 33, 49, 60?, 120, 133?, 319.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer and columns.

 

I8         Cipollino (or cipollino verde): chloritic marble with alternating light to dark gray, yellowish, and/or light to dark green bands, where the bands are narrow, parallel and/or deformed (contorted and micro-faulted) with occasional white inclusions. Source — Carystos, Styra and other sites on the Island of Euboea, western Aegean Sea, Greece. Quarried — 1st c. BC through Byzantine period. Roman name — marmor caristium [or carystium] (= marble of Carystos); and Italian name — translates as "(green) onion", because it is layered like an onion. References and Photos — M85 (p 58; 566, 569 in pl 17), G88 (p 181-183; f 204, 205), MSG89 (p 202-203; f 56a-56c), AN89 (11 on p 112), DW92 (p 156; c in pl 2), PB98 (p 5-6; pl 11-12) and R01 (pl 3: B1-B5).

 

             Buildings: 15, 33, 133, 143, 218.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer, and columns.

 

I9         Cipollino mandolato: pink marble with thick (few cm's), almost nodular layers that are sometimes brecciated or cut by thick white veins. The variety seen in Cairo differs from the more typical cipollino mandolato which has less layering and more conspicuous, ovoid (almond-like) white or pink nodules in a green, pink or purple matrix. Source — occurs along a 100 km stretch of the central Pyrenees Mountains between Santa Marie de Campan (province of Hautes Pyrιnιes) and Esplas de Serou (province of Ariege), southern France. Quarried — 3rd c. AD until present. The Roman quarries (2nd c. AD onward) are near Pont de la Taule, and the medieval and moderns ones are near Santa Marie de Campan. Roman name — unknown; French name — marbre campan; Italian name — translates to "onion [with] almonds", the latter referring to the almond-like nodules. References and Photos — M85 (p 58-59; 585 & 588 in pl 17), G88 (p 183; f 207), MSG89 (p 204-205; f 57a-57b), ALRT02 and R01 (pl 3: B6-B8).

 

             Buildings: 123.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I10       Cipollino rosso

 

   a.       Cipollino rosso venato (veined variety): marble with alternating, contorted white to light gray and light to dark red bands or veins, where the gray veins are commonly discontinuous or replaced with elongated/deformed patches of the same color.

 

   b.       Cipollino rosso brecciato (brecciated variety): marble with white to commonly light gray or rarely black, medium-grained, subrounded marble clasts in a red matrix. Occasionally, there are large red, clast-free areas or textures transitional with the veined variety. This stone can be similar in appearance to both breccia corallina and broccatelli d'Egitto.

 

Source — Asin Kurin near Milas (ancient Iasos in Caria), southwestern Turkey. Quarried — 3rd c. AD through Byzantine period, and again in modern times. Roman name — marmor carium or iassense (= marble of Caria or Iasos); and Italian names — translate as "veined red onion" and "brecciated red onion". The "venato" suffix in the name of the veined variety is introduced here to clearly distinguish it from the brecciated variety. In the literature the veined variety is referred to simply as cipollino rosso. The latter is also referred to by the Italians as Iassense rosso brecciato (= red breccia of Iasos) and Africanone (= due to its similar appearance to Africanco; I1). References and Photos: veined variety — M85 (p 46-47; 262, 265 in pl 8), G88 (p 243-245; f 244), MSG89 (p 207; f 59a-59b), AN89 (12 on p 112), DW92 (p 156) and PB98 (p 9; pl 45-46); brecciated variety — M85 (p 46; 257 in pl 8), G88 (p 244-245; f 245), MSG89 (p 289; f 127a), PB98 (p 9; pl 47-48) and R01 (pl 3: C4-C5).

 

 

             Buildings: veined variety — 18, 35, 43, 66, 97, 117, 125, 130, 133, 187, 190, 218, 242, SAB; brecciated variety — 32, 38, 43, 66, 116, 119, 121, 123, 130, 133, 134, 143?, 190, 203?, 218, 220, 221, 255, 281.

 

             Uses: abundant floor and especially wall veneer, and scarce columns.

 

I11       Fior di pesco [or persico]: reddish, pinkish to purplish marble with highly contorted and brecciated layers, and white patches and veins. Source — near Eretria (20 km south of ancient Chalcis or modern Halkida), Island of Euboea, western Aegean Sea, Greece. Quarried — 1st c. BC into the Roman period. Roman name — marmor chalcidicum (= marble of Chalcis); and Italian name — translates as "blossom of the peach-tree". The Italians also sometimes call it marmo rosso di Eretria (= red marble of Eretria). References and Photos — M85 (p 57-58; 548, 551 & 555 in pl 16), G88 (p 184-186; f 127), MSG89 (p 212; f 63a-63b), AN89 (3 on p 113), DW92 (p 156), PB98 (p 5; pl 9-10) and R01 (pl 2: B6-B9).

 

             Buildings: 123, 133, 218, 281?.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I12       Granito violetto: purplish gray, medium- to coarse-grained quartz monzonite. Source — Cigri Dag near Ezine, Troad Peninsula (ancient Troas), northwestern Turkey. Quarried — 4th c. BC to 6th c. AD. Roman name — marmor troadense (= marble of Troas); Italian name — translates as "violet granite". References and Photos — M85 (p 68; 790 in pl 23), G88 (p 152-153; f 103), MSG89 (p 236-237; f 82a), DW92 (p 159) and GLM92 (t 1-5) and PB98 (p 7; pl 28).

 

             Buildings: 1, 120, 143.

 

             Uses: rare columns.

 

I13       Greco scritto: medium-grained marble with dark gray to bluish gray (graphitic) script-like inclusions and veining on a white matrix that borders, at times, on brecciation. Source — Cap de Garde near Annaba, Algeria. Quarried — 1st to 4th c. AD. Roman name — unknown; and Italian name — translates as "Greek script". References and Photos — M85 (p 60; 642 & 643 in pl 19), MSG89 (p 237; f 83a), DW92 (p 153) and R01 (pl 1: B5 & pl 3: A3).

 

             Building: 133, 138, 248, 319.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer, and columns.

 

I14       Marble of Carrara

 

  a.        Marmo bianco di Carrara: mottled dark and predominately light gray, fine- to medium-grained marble. Source — Carrara (ancient Luna or Luni), northwestern Italy. Quarried — 1st c. BC to 3rd c. AD, and again in medieval to modern times. Roman name — marmor lunense or lapis lunensis (= marble or stone of Luna); and Italian name — translates as "marble of Carrara". References — M85 (p 61-61), G88 (p 265), MSG89 (p 248), DW92 (p 153) and R01 (pl 1: A8).

 

  b.        Bardiglio di Carrara: mottled light and predominately dark gray to black, fine- to medium-grained marble. Source — same as marmo di Carrara. Quarried — Roman period (c. unknown), and again in medieval to modern times. Italian name has no translation. References and Photos — M85 (p 60; 634 in pl 19), MSG89 (p 153; f 13a) and R01 (pl 1: B3).

 

             Buildings: most of the buildings renovated in the 19th and 20th centuries have some of these two marbles. Apparently none of the Carrara marble in Cairo is ancient. In this study the marmo bianco di Carrara is often identified as simply light gray or "white" marble (U1), and the bardiglio di Carrara as dark gray or "black" marble (U2).

 

             Uses: common wall and floor veneer, columns, and door sills and jambs.

 

I15       Marmo Pentelico: white to yellowish white, translucent, fine-grained marble. Source — Mount Pentelicon near Athens, Greece. Quarried — 5th c. BC until late Roman period (c. unknown). Roman name — marmor pentelicum (= marble of Pentelicon); and Italian name — translates as "Pentelic marble". References — M85(p 61), G88 (p 263) and MSG89 (p 251).

 

             Buildings: 133?, 187.

 

             Uses: rare floor veneer.

 

I16       Marmo di Proconneso (a.k.a. Proconnesian marble): light gray marble with straight, parallel, dark — often bluish — gray bands. Some bands may show faulting. Source — Island of Proconnesos or Marmora, Sea of Marmora, northwestern Turkey. Quarried — 6th c. BC into Ottoman period. Most of the marble imported to Egypt during the Roman period was Proconnesian. Roman name — marmor proconnesium (= marble of Proconnesos); and Italian name — translates as "marble of Proconnesos". The Italians also sometimes call it marmo cipolla (= banded marble). References and Photos — M85 ( p 60-61; 649 & 652 in pl 19), G88 (p 263-264), MSG89 (p 252; f 99a), DW92 (p 154) and R01 (pl 1: A7).

 

             Buildings: essentially every building has some of this marble.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, columns, and door sills and jambs.

 

I17       Nero antico: dark gray to mainly black limestone with common to mainly rare, straight to slightly contorted, thin white to light gray or yellowish veins and patches plus, rarely, small invertebrate fossils. It is easily confused with other black, carbonaceous limestones. Source — most prominent is Gebel Aziz (near ancient Chemtou) in Tunisia but there are other sources in Tunisia, Italy and Greece. Quarried — 2nd c. AD to Late Roman period. Italian name — translates as "ancient black". References and Photos — M85 (p 57; 539 & 543 in pl 16), G88 (p 193-195), MSG89 (p 254-255; f 101a-101c), AN89 (p 85), PB98 (p 13-14; pl 80) and R01 (pl 1: C1-C2).

 

             Buildings: 49?, 66?, 114?, 203?, 218?.

 

             Uses: scarce wall and floor veneer, and rarely columns.

 

I18       Occhio di pavone rosso [or pavonazzo]: fossiliferous limestone with red, pink and/or purple, fine-grained calcareous matrix, and white rudist pelecypod shell fragments up to several cm across plus much smaller echinoid and foraminifera bioclasts. Source — Kutluca, near Izmit (in ancient Nicomedia), northwestern Turkey. Quarried — 2nd to 10th c. AD, and again in modern times. Roman name — marmor triponticum (= marble among three seas); Byzantine name — possibly marmor pneumonusium (= "marble like a lung", either a reference to its color or, more likely, its texture); and Italian name — translates as "red or purple eye of the peacock", a reference to the eye-like patterns seen in a peacock's tail feathers. References and Photos — M85 (p 42; 149, 154 & 155 in pl 5), G88 (p 206-209; f 216-217), MSG89 (p 258-262; f 105a-105b), PB98 (p 7; pl 25-27), L02 and R01 (pl 7: C1-C9).

 

             Buildings: 32, 116?, 123, 125, 130, 133?, 190, 203, 218.

 

             Uses: scarce wall and floor veneer.

 

I19       Pavonazzetto: marble with white clasts of medium-grained (1-3 mm) marble in a red to mainly purplish matrix cut by purplish-red and rarely green veins. The clasts usually have edges that are diffuse rather than sharp as in breccia di Settebassi. Source — Ischehisar near Afyon (ancient Docimium in Phrygia), west-central Turkey. Quarried — 1st c. BC to 6th c. AD. Roman name — marmor phrygium, synnadicum or docimium (= marble of Phyrgia, Synnada or Docimium); and Italian name — translates as "purplish". References and Photos — M85 (p 59; 600 & 606 in pl 18), G88 (p 169-171; f 125-126), MSG89 (p 264-265; f 109a-109b), AN90 (p 93-94), DW92 (p 156; f in pl 1), PB98 (p 8; pl 37-40) and R01 (pl 2: A2-A9).

 

             Buildings: 32, 43, 66, 123, 130, 133, 147, 190, 319;  SAB.

 

             Uses: scarce wall veneer and rare columns.

 

I20       Porfido serpentino verde (or porfido verde di Grecia, porfido verde antico or simply serpentino): andesite to diabase porphyry with large, light to medium green or yellowish phenocrysts in a dark green groundmass. Source — Laconia between KroKeai and Stephania (near ancient Sparta), Peloponnese, southern Greece. Quarried — 1st c. BC through Roman period. This porphyry and the MP imperial porphyry (see E1 above) were, volumetrically, the two colored decorative stones most heavily used by the Romans. Greek name — krokeatis lithos (stone of Crokeatis); Roman name — lapis lacedaemonius or marmor lacedaemonium (= stone or marble of Lacedaemon, which is another name for Sparta); and Italian name — translates as "green serpentine porphyry". References and Photos — M85 (p 66; 731 in pl 22), G88 (p 141-144), MSG89 (p 279-281; f 121a-121d), AN89 (14 on p 112), DW92 (p 158; b in pl 1), PB98 (p 6; pl 13-16) and R01 (pl 18: A1-A4).

 

             Buildings: 123, 147, 189, 190; SCB.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I21       Rosso antico: fine-grained, non-fossiliferous, red to purplish red or mottled light and dark red marble with occasional black and/or white inclusions or veins. Source — Prophitis Elias, Paganea, Kokkinoghia and other sites near Cape Tainaron (also Taenaros or Matapan), Peloponnese, southern Greece. Quarried — 2nd c. BC into the Roman period. Roman name — marmor taenarium (= marble of Taenaros); and Italian name — translates as "ancient red". References and Photos — M85 (p 59; 596 & 599 in pl 17), G88 (p 187-191; f 198), MSG89 (p 288; f 126a), AN89 (p 95-97), DW92 (p 157; f in pl 2), PB98 (p 6; pl 19-20) and R01 (pl 5: B9).

 

             Buildings: 120, 123, 133, 187?

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

I22       Verde antico: calcareous serpentinite/marble breccia with pebble- to cobble-size, angular, white marble clasts plus black to dark green serpentinite clasts in a medium to dark green matrix with rare bluish and reddish patches. Source — Mount Thyseo near Larisa in Thessaly, east-central Greece. Quarried — 2nd to 6th c. AD. Roman name — marmor thessalicum (= marble of Thessaly); and Italian name — translates as "ancient green". References and Photos — M85 (p 63-64; 683, 686 & 689 in pl 20), G88 (p 162-165; f 118), MSG89 (p 292-293; f 13b-13c), AN89 (7 on p 113), DW92 (p 157; f in pl 2), PB98 (p 5; pl 1-4) and R01 (pl 15: B1-B8).

 

             Buildings: 32, 35, 38, 43, 44, 66, 97, 99, 119, 121, 123, 125, 133, 138, 143, 147, 149, 175, 187, 189, 190, 203, 218, 255, 549; SAB.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, and scarce columns.

 

STONES OF UNCERTAIN OR UNKNOWN PROVENANCE

 

Marbles

 

U1        Light gray (a.k.a. "white") marble undifferentiated: refers to numerous varieties of marble that vary from a nearly uniform white or light gray color to more often light gray with dark gray (or dark bluish gray) streaks, bands or mottlings. Most if not all of the gray-banded marble is Proconnesian (see I16 above), and much of the non-banded, mottled marble may be marmo bianco di Carrara (I14a).

 

             Buildings: essentially every building has some of this marble.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, columns, and door sills and jambs. 

 

U2        Dark gray (a.k.a. "black") marble undifferentiated: refers to numerous varieties of marble that vary from a nearly uniform black or dark gray color to more often dark gray with light gray streaks, bands or mottlings. Much of this marble is probably Bardiglio di Carrara (I14b). Some may also be nero antico without the veining (I17) or carbonaceous limestone.

 

             Buildings: found in nearly all the buildings.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, especially in stone mosaics.

 

U3        Brecciated light gray/black marble: pebble- to boulder-size pieces of light gray marble in a dark gray to black matrix. This marble is possibly either a light-colored variety of breccia di Settebassi (I7) or a variety of africano (I1).

 

             Building: 97.

  

             Uses: rare columns.

 

Limestones

 

U4        Fossiliferous red/pink limestone undifferentiated: red or mottled red and pink limestone with white mollusc shell (mainly oyster) or crinoid fragments up to several mm across. This stone was widely used as a look-alike for the more valuable MP imperial porphyry (E1). The variety with crinoids may be rossi di Verzegnis (from near Verzegnis, province of Udine, northeastern Italy, and quarried only in post-Roman times). Most of the limestone with larger shells is probably occhio di pavone rosso (I18).

 

             Buildings: 32, 43, 45, 66, 97, 119, 162, 175, 190, 203, 215, 255; SAB.

 

             Uses: common wall and floor veneer.

 

U5        Red limestone: refers to any fine-grained, featureless (lacks obvious fossils), red (ferruginous) limestone. It is possible that some of what is identified here as red limestone is actually rosso antico marble (I21), and some of it may even be red terracotta.

 

             Buildings: found in nearly all the buildings.

 

             Uses: abundant wall and floor veneer, especially in stone mosaics.

 

U6        Pink limestone conglomerate: limestone conglomerate with tan to mainly pink, subangular to subround, pebble-size clasts which are tightly compacted. It is possibly a variety of breccia rossa appenninica (I6) or breccia aurora classica (M1).

 

             Buildings: 66, 97.

 

             Uses: rare wall and floor veneer, and columns.

 

U7        Orange, tan and green limestones: refers to any fine-grained and featureless limestone with orange, tan or green color. It is possible, but unlikely, that some of this stone is actually marble. Some of the orange limestone may be astracane dorato d'Egitto (E18). The green limestone (e.g., building 121) looks like WH greywacke (E8) and can be easily confused with it unless tested with acid (the former fizzes whereas the latter does not). Some of what is identified as tan limestone may actually be discolored white/light gray marble.

 

             Buildings and Uses: common wall and floor veneer, especially in stone mosaics.

 

U8        Swirled yellow/pink limestone: yellowish to pinkish limestone with what appears to be swirled or deformed laminations. It may come from the Roman-Byzantine quarry at Kabatia, near Bethlehem, Palestine (West Bank).

 

             Buildings: 123, 133, 189.

 

             Uses: rare wall veneer.

 

U9        Yellow and red conglomerate: limestone conglomerate with red matrix, and rounded, light to medium gray and yellow clasts. This is possibly breccia di Aleppo.

 

Breccia di Aleppo: source – Alet, France. Quarried in Roman times (c. unknown). References: M85 (p 51-52; 383 in pl 12), G88 (p 237-238), MSG89 (p 161; f 18a) and R01 (pl 13: C1-C3).

 

Buildings: 134.

 

             Uses: rare columns.

 

 

Either Marble or Limestone

 

U10      Mottled pink limestone/marble: limestone or marble, mottled light and darker pink with occasional light gray areas. This stone may be a variety of either breccia traccagnina (see U9), breccia di Aleppo (see U9) or rosso antico (I21).

 

             Buildings: 66, 97, 133, 203, 218.

 

             Uses: wall and floor veneer, and rarely columns.

 

U11      Red-and-white breccia undifferentiated: limestone or marble breccia with mainly white to occasionally pinkish or yellowish, subrounded to mainly angular, pebble- to cobble-size clasts in a red or pink matrix. This description generally fits three stones from different sources that, for many people, are difficult to distinguish megascopically: breccia corallina (I4), cipollino rosso brecciato (I10b), and broccatelli d'Egitto (E19). When it was not possible to make a distinction the stone was simply identified as red-and-white breccia. Most such occurrences, however, are probably cipollino rosso brecciato with much of the rest being Egyptian broccatelli.

 

             Buildings: 143, 187, 549; SAB.

 

             Uses: wall veneer, and columns.

 

Modern Stones          These stones were quarried in Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries, and those examples seen in Cairo result mostly, if not entirely, from restorations since the late 1880's. A couple of these stones were also have been quarried by the Romans and so it is possible that some pieces date from this earlier period.

 

M1       Breccia aurora classica: from the Lombardia region, province of Brescia, northern Italy. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Buildings: 218?

 

M2       Broccato di Verona [a.k.a., rossi di Verona]: mottled pink and purple limestone where the pink areas sometimes break up into what look like rounded pebbles or nodules. Broccatello di Verona is a rare and more valuable subvariety that is characterized by smaller nodules (2-3 cm maximum). From near Verona, northern Italy. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Buildings: 13, 66, 97, 120, 143, 187, 190, 218, 281.

 

M3       Nero assoluto: source unknown. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Buildings: 66.

 

M4       Nero del Belgio [a.k.a., Belgium black]: from near Golzinne, central Belgium. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Building: 218?

 

M5       Pomarolo [a.k.a., breccia di Arbe]: from the Island of Rab (ancient Arbe), Adriatic Sea, northern Croatia. Quarried from the 12th c. AD until the 19th c? Building: 120.

 

M6       Portoro: mottled medium to dark gray marble with occasional layers and irregular pockets of white/light gray and yellow. From near Portovenere, province of La Spezia, Tuscany, northwestern Italy. Quarried from 16th c. AD to present. Buildings: 66, 123, 190, 218.

 

M7       Rosso di Francia [a.k.a. Lanquedoc marble]: from near Gard, province of Lanquedoc, southern France. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Buildings: 66, 134?, 221.

 

M8       Rosso di Levanto: from near Levanto, province of La Spezia, northwestern Italy. Quarried from the 16th c. AD to present. Building: 123?

 

M9       Verde Alpi: brecciated medium green to greenish black serpentinite which is cut by numerous, thick, white to mainly pale green veins. From the Aosta Valley, northwestern Italy. Other similar-looking stones were quarried in the Piedmont and Ligury areas of northern Italy, and some of what has been identified here as verde alpi may be one or more of these other stones. Quarried only in post-Roman times. Buildings: 35, 130, 134, 143, 147, 149, 187, 190, 218, 242, 248?, 281?; SAB.

 

M10     Verde Tenos: from the Island of Tinos, southern Aegean Sea (Cyclades), Greece. Quarried from Roman times (c. unknown) to present. It was probably used as a substitute for the similar-looking but more costly verde antico. Building: 281?

 

M11     Porous travertine: light gray to nearly white travertine with large elongated pores parallel to bedding. From the area around Tivoli, central Italy. Quarried from Roman times (c. unknown) to present. Building: 149.

 

M12     Dolomitic marble: possibly "Thasian" from the Island of Thasos, northern Aegean Sea, Greece. Quarried from 7th c BC to 7th c. AD, and again in modern times? Building: 33.

 

 

REFERENCES CITED

 

AHS00 Aston, B. G., J.A. Harrell and I. Shaw, 2000, Stones; in P.T. Nicholson and I. Shaw (eds.), "Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology": University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge, p. 5-77.

 

ALRT02   Antonelli, F., L. Lazzarini, L. Rasplus and B. Turi, 2002, Petrographic and geochemical characterization of cipollino mandolato and determination of the provenance of some artifacts: in J.J. Herrmann, N. Herz and R. Newman (eds.), "ASMOSIA 5 – Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone" (Proceedings of Fifth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1998): Archetype Publications, Ltd., London, p. 77-90.

 

AN89   Anderson, M. L. and L. Nista (eds.), 1989, Radiance in stone — sculptures in colored marble from the Museo Nazionale Romana: De Luca Edizioni D'Arte (Rome).

 

BH91   Brown, V. M. and J. A. Harrell, 1991, Megascopic classification of rocks: Journal of Geological Education, v. 39, p. 379-387.

 

BH95   Brown, V. M. and J. A. Harrell, 1995, Topographical and petrological survey of ancient Roman quarries in the Eastern Desert of Egypt; in Y. Maniatis, N. Herz and Y. Bassiakis (eds.), "The Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity — ASMOSIA III, Athens", Transactions of the 3rd International Symposium of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity: Archetype Publications (London), p. 221-234.

 

BH98  Brown, V.M. and J.A. Harrell, 1998, Aswan granite and granodiorite:  Gφttinger Miszellen, Beitrδge zur  Δgyptologischen Diskussion, no. 164, p. 33-39.

 

DK92   DePutter, T. and C. Karlshausen, 1992, Les pierres utilisιes dans la sculpture et l'architecture de l'Ιgypte pharaonique — guide pratique illustrι: Connaissance de l'Ιgypte Ancienne (Bruxelles).

 

DW92  Dodge, H. and B. Ward-Perkins (eds.), 1992, Marble in antiquity — collected papers of J. B. Ward-Perkins: Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome No. 6, British School at Rome (London).

 

GLM92  Galetti, G., L. Lazzarini and M. Maggetti, 1992, A first characterization of the most important granites used in antiquity; in M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens (eds.), "Ancient Stones — Quarrying, Trade and Provenance": Acta Archaeologia Lovaniensia Monographiae 4, Leuven University Press (Leuven), p. 167-177.

 

G88      Gnoli, R., 1988, Marmora Romana: Edizioni dell'Elefante (Rome).

 

H90      Harrell, J. A., 1990, Misuse of the term 'alabaster' in Egyptology: Gφttinger Miszellen, Beitrδge zur Δgyptologischen Diskussion, no. 119, p. 37-42.

 

H92      Harrell, J. A., 1992, Ancient Egyptian limestone quarries — a petrological survey: Archaeometry, v. 34, p. 195-212.

 

HB92a Harrell, J.A. and V.M. Brown, 1992, The world's oldest surviving geological map — the 1150 BC Turin  papyrus from Egypt:  Journal of Geology, v. 100, p. 3-18.

 

HB92b Harrell, J.A. and V.M. Brown, 1992, The oldest surviving topographical map from ancient Egypt (Turin   Papyri 1879, 1899 and 1969):  Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, v. 29, p. 81-105.

 

HB95   Harrell, J. A. and T. M. Bown, 1995, An Old Kingdom basalt quarry at Widan el-Faras and the quarry road to Lake Moeris in the Faiyum, Egypt: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, v. 32, p. 71-91.

 

HBL99   Harrell, J.A., V.M. Brown and L. Lazzarini, 1999, Two newly discovered Roman quarries in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: in M. Schvoerer (ed.), "Archeomateriaux, Marbres et Autre Roches — Actes de la Conference Internationale ASMOSIA IV, 9-13 Octobre 1995", Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquιe ΰ L'Archιologie — Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, p. 285-292.

 

HBLf   Harrell, J.A., V.M. Brown and L. Lazzarini, 2002, Breccia verde antica – source, petrology and ancient uses; in L. Lazzarini (ed.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone – ASMOSIA VI, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Venice, June 15-18, 2000: Bottega d'Erasmo - Aldo Ausilio Editore, Padova, p. 207-218.

 

HB02  Harrell, J.A. and V.M. Brown, 2002, Rock sawing at a Roman diorite quarry, Wadi Umm Shegilat, Egypt; in J.J. Herrmann, N. Herz and R. Newman (eds.), "ASMOSIA 5 – Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone" (Proceedings of Fifth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1998): Archetype Publications, Ltd., London, p. 52-57.

 

HL02   Harrell, J.A. and L. Lazzarini, 2002, A new variety of granito bianco e nero from Wadi Barud, Egypt; in J.J. Herrmann, N. Herz and R. Newman (eds.), "ASMOSIA 5 – Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone" (Proceedings of Fifth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1998): Archetype Publications, Ltd., London, p. 47-51.

 

HLBf   Harrell, J.A., L. Lazzarini and M. Bruno, 2002, Reuse of Roman ornamental stones in medieval Cairo, Egypt; in L. Lazzarini (ed.), Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone – ASMOSIA VI, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Venice, June 15-18, 2000: Bottega d'Erasmo - Aldo Ausilio Editore, Padova, p. 89-96.

 

KK93   Klemm, R. and D. D. Klemm, 1993, Steine und steinbrόche im alten Δgypten: Springer-Verlag (Berlin).

 

L02       Lazzarini, L., 2002, The origin and characterization of 'breccia nuvolata', 'marmor sagarium' and 'marmor triponticum': in J.J. Herrmann, N. Herz and R. Newman (eds.), "ASMOSIA 5 – Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone" (Proceedings of Fifth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1998): Archetype Publications, Ltd., London, p. 58-67.

 

LPT99 Lazzarini, L., P. Pensabene and B. Turi, 1999, Isotopic and petrographic characterization of Marmor Lesbium, Island of Lesbos, Greece: in M. Schvoerer (ed.), "Archeomateriaux, Marbres et Autre Roches — Actes de la Conference Internationale ASMOSIA IV, 9-13 Octobre 1995", Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquιe ΰ L'Archιologie — Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, p. 125-130.

 

LT99a Lazzarini, L. and B. Turi, 1999, Discovery of the Sienese provenance of breccia dorato and breccia gialla fibrosa, and the origin of breccia rossa appenninica: in M. Schvoerer (ed.), "Archeomateriaux, Marbres et Autre Roches — Actes de la Conference Internationale ASMOSIA IV, 9-13 Octobre 1995", Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquιe ΰ L'Archιologie — Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, p. 77-82.

 

LT99b Lazzarini, L. and B. Turi, 1999, Characterization and differentiation of the Skyros marbles (Greece) and the Medici's breccias (Italy): in M. Schvoerer (ed.), "Archeomateriaux, Marbres et Autre Roches — Actes de la Conference Internationale ASMOSIA IV, 9-13 Octobre 1995", Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquιe ΰ L'Archιologie — Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, p. 117-125.

 

MSG89  Marchei, M. C., A. Sironi and R. Gnoli, 1989, Repertorio; in G. Borghini (ed.), "Marmi Antichi": Leonardo-De Luca Editori (Rome), p. 131-302.

 

M85     Mielsch, H., 1985, Buntmarmore aus Rom in Antikenmuseum Berlin: Staatliche Museum Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin).

 

PB98    Pensabene, P. and M. Bruno, 1998, Il marmo e il colore guida fotographica — I marmi della collezione Podesti: L'Erma di Bretschneider (Rome).

 

R01      Ricci, F. M., 2001, Delle pietre antiche di Faustino Corsi romano: FMR spa (Milan).