Curriculum Vita for Daryl F. Dwyer


Personal:            University of Toledo, Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences

                           2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3390

                           Tel: (419) 530-2661; email:

                           Languages: English, German


Curriculum:       Ph.D. (1986) Microbiology

                           M.A.  (1981) Environmental Biology

                           B.S.  (1978) Biology, Psychology




2001              Associate Professor, Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH

1993              Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

1988              Project Leader in Applied Microbial Ecology, Federal Institute for Biotechnological Research (GBF), Germany

1987              Maitre d'Assistant, University of Geneva, Switzerland

1986              Research Assistant, University of Geneva, Switzerland

1981              Research and Teaching Assistant, Michigan State University

1978              Research and Teaching Assistant, State University of New York at Buffalo

1976              Laboratory and Teaching Assistant, Wilkes College, PA




1987              NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship:  "Genetic analysis of the response of soil bacterial ecosystems to 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and other xenobiotic ether compounds"

1986              Ph.D. (Michigan State Univ.), Thesis:  "Anaerobic biodegradation of ether compounds by ether bond-cleaving bacteria and methanogenic consortia", Advisor: Prof. James M. Tiedje

1981              M.A. (SUNY/Buffalo), Thesis:  "Synergistic effect of light, temperature and copper on the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda", Advisor: Prof. John F. Storr.  Activities:  Graduate Council Representative

1978              B.S. (Wilkes College), Activities and Awards: Academic Standing Co., Curriculum Co., President's Council on Teacher Effectiveness, President of American Institute of Biological Sciences Chapter, Wilkes College Biological Research Award, Sigma XI, Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities, Student Council Representative


Professional Societies:          


American Chemical Society, American Society for Microbiology


Research Experience:                                   


Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation of Environmental Pollutants, Applied Microbial Ecology and Physiology, Design and Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms, Molecular Biology, Anaerobic Microbiology, Limnology, Marine Reef Ecosystem Studies

Recent Research Projects


Research goals center on developing strategies for the bioremediation of polluted environments.  Projects have included: 


1.   Addition of non-indigenous bacteria, including genetically engineered microorganisms, to a contaminated aquifer.  This project is in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey at the U.S.G.S. Groundwater Contamination Study Site (Cape Cod, MA).  Primary goals are to define: 


      (a) in situ conditions that are conducive to rapid degradation of target pollutants by non-indigenous microorganisms, and


      (b) ecological and bioremediative effects which follow addition of genetically engineered microorganisms to aquifers.


2.   Development of techniques using molecular biology to identify and track target microbes in the environment and to measure the effect of man's activities on the structure and activity of indigenous microbial ecosystems.


3.   Genetic and physiological analysis of diaryl ether-degrading bacteria.  Genes encoding a dioxygenase responsible for the catalytic cleavage of diaryl rings have been cloned and sequenced.  Bacteria with genetically modified catabolic pathways capable of degrading recalcitrant pesticides are being developed and their fate and activities analyzed in soils polluted with phenoxybenzoate-based chemicals. 


4.   Modeling natural attenuation of TCE in a marshland receiving TCE-contaminated groundwater.  Additional objectives are to analyze the potential for oxidation of TCE by methanotrophs and to observe any influence on the rate of degradation of TCE by vegetation. 


5.   Analysis of whether biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms can be used to accelerate the removal of organic wastes from a contaminated aquifer that threatens to impact the Cedar River (IA).  The organic compounds were waste products from a former manufactured gas plant. 


6.   Development of an organo-solv process for the recovery of industrial products from oat hull residues.  This project was done in cooperation with and funded by the Biological Process Technology Institute, University of Minnesota.



Courses Taught


University of Toledo


Course Number             Date                             Title                                                     

EEES 4980-001             Spring 2002                   Phytoremediation

EEES 6980-001             Spring 2002                   Advanced Phytoremediation

EEES 4980-002             Spring 2002                   Environmental Microbiology

EEES 6980-002             Spring 2002                   Advanced Environmental Microbiology



University of Minnesota


Course Number             Title                                                                             


CE 3500                       Introduction to Environmental Engineering

CE 5501                       Analysis and Design of Wastewater Systems

CE 5507                       Environmental Engineering Laboratory*

CE 5515                       Water and Wastewater Microbiology

CE 8508                       Groundwater Microbiology*

CE 8509                       Environmental Microbiology*


*Course having a laboratory component


Technical University of Braunschweig


Laboratory Course in Ecology and Physiology of Microorganisms


University of Geneva


Microbiology for Medical Students


Michigan State University


Microbial Ecology



Graduate Student Supervision


University of Minnesota


Completed Ph.D. Degrees


Rolf Halden:  "Soil microcosm studies designed to determine the fate and activity of non-indigenous, diaryl ether degrading bacteria."  Started 1/4/93.  Defense May 1997.  Presently employed as research associate, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, Berkeley, CA.


Marc Von Keitz:  "Resource recovery in the food processing industry: simultaneous production of dietary fiber and xylose for xylitol fermentation from oat hulls." Started 9/15/94.  Defense June 2000.  Presently employed as research assistant, BioProcess Technology Institute, University of Minnesota, MN.


Completed Masters Degrees (Plan A, Master of Science)


Erik Peters:  "Fate and activity of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain POB310 in soils contaminated with phenoxybenzoates."  Started 9/15/93.  Defense May 1997.  Presently employed by Bonestroo Rosene Anderlik & Associates, Inc.


Gary Mundfrom:  "Development of nucleic acid probes for detection of genes encoding the 16S rDNA and 4POB-dioxygenase of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain POB310 in environmental samples."  Started 1/4/93.  Defense August 1997.  Presently employed by Delta Environmental Consultants.


Keith Anderson:  "Parameters affecting the transport of bacteria in aquifer sediment columns."  Started 9/15/93.  Defense August 1997.  Presently employed by Minnesota Extension Service, Water Resources Branch.


Sandra Tepp:  "Survival and activity in soil of Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 (pPOB):  a bacterium designed for the degradation of phenoxybenzoates."  Started 9/15/95.  Defense January 1998.  Presently employed by Remediation Technologies, Inc.


Julie Sullivan:  Modeling the subsurface transport of genetically engineered microorganisms in a sand-gravel aquifer, Cape Cod, MA.  Started 6/15/96.  Defense August 1999. Presently employed by Barr Engineering, Co.


Jamie Bankston:  Bioattenuation of trichloroethylene by methanotrophic bacteria in a TCE-contaminated marshland.  Started 9/15/97.  Defense August 1999.  Presently employed by Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc.


Troy Twesme:  Modeling natural attenuation of a TCE plume in subsurface sediments and a wetland ecosystem.  Started 6/15/98. Defense August 1999.  Presently with the U.S. Air Force, Korea.


Completed Masters Degrees (Plan B, Master of Science)


Zelma Zieman:  "In situ bioremediation of a contaminated site:  A proposed evaluation plan." 1994.


Rolf Ulrich Halden:  "Biotransformation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers."  1994.


Scott Abrams:  "Data analysis of off-gas from an air-sparged landfill to be used for determining rates of biodegradation."  1997.


William Raatz:  "Use of genetically engineered microorganisms for in situ bioaugmentation." 1999.


Dean Langenfeld:  "Modification of the Twesme subsurface contaminant-transport model for use in heterogenous environments."  2000.


Jennifer Kersten: " Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Bacteria and Their Target Compounds. 2001.


Current Ph.D.


William Raatz:  "Fate of genetically modifed bacteria in a sand-gravel aquifer."  Started 9/15/94.


Don Richard:  Natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant (MGP) residuals in a shallow aquifer at the site of the Waterloo Coal Gassification Plant.  Started 9/15/97.

Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung (Germany):


Completed Ph.D. Degrees


Mary Lou Krumme:  "Development of aquifer microcosms and in situ methods to test the fate and function of pollutant-degrading microorganisms."  1993.


Jörg Egestorff:  "Establishment and standardization of aquifer microcosms used to predict in situ survival, function and ecological effects of GEMs designed to degrade environmental pollutants."  1993.


Uwe Dehmel:  "Genetic analysis of the catabolic pathway for 4-phenoxybenzoate in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain 310."  1994.


Completed Masters Degrees


Klaus Nüßlein:  "Development of activated sludge microcosms for predicting the in situ fate of microorganisms."  1990.


Maren Brunke:  "Kinetic analysis of the microbial degradation of substituted aromatic compounds in a microcosm."  1991.



Recent Research Funding:


Natural Bioremediation of MPG residues at the Waterloo Coal Gassification Plant Site, 1998-2000.  ($157,200).  MidAmerican Energy Co.


Intrinsic bioremediation of trichloroethylene. 1997-1999. ($72,596). Alliant Engineering, Inc.


In situ bioremediation of aquifers by introduced bacteria. 1994-1998. ($306,195). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Bioremediation of diaryl ethers by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain POB 310. 1994-1998. ($208,729). National Science Foundation.


In situ biodegradation of diaryl ethers by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB 310 - II. 1994-1995. ($17,300). Graduate School of the University of Minnesota. PI.


In situ biodegradation of diaryl ethers by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB 310. 1993-1994. ($17,380). Graduate School of the University of Minnesota. PI.


Establishment of methods for molecular microbial ecology. 1991-1993. (DM 3,850,000) German Ministry for Research and Technology.  Written with Prof. Dr. K.N. Timmis and others to establish a general research program in microbial ecology in the Department of Microbiology, GBF.


Genetic engineering of PCB-degrading bacteria and analysis of their biological safety, PCB-degrading activity and gene stability in rhizosphere and river sediment microcosms. 1991-1993. (DM 320,000) European Community Grant. Cooperative project with Prof. F. O'Gara, University College Cork, Ireland.


Analysis of in situ behavior of genetically engineered bacteria in standardized microcosms. 1989-1991. (DM 220,000) European Community Grant. Development of activated sludge microcosms for risk assessment concerning introduction of GEMs into the environment.  Cooperative project with Dr. J. L. Ramos, CSIC, Granada, Spain.


Development of aquifer microcosms and in situ methods to test the fate and function of pollutant-degrading microorganisms. 1988-1991. ($123,344) U.S. Department of Energy. Cooperative project with Prof. J. M. Tiedje, MSU, Michigan and Dr. R. L. Smith, U.S.G.S., Boulder, CO.



Invited Speaker:


1.         Laboratory evolution of Pseudomonas strains able to decompose environmental polutants, and their behavior in model ecosystems. 1988. International Pseudomonas-symposium. Lund University, Malmo, Sweden.


2.         Detection and enumeration of genetically engineered microorganisms in aquatic microcosms. 1989. Biochemical and gene technological methods in studies in microbial ecology. Danish Research Academy, Copenhagen, Denmark.


3.         Problems with the release of genetically altered microorganisms. 1989. ECOINFORMA. Bayreuth, Germany.


4.         Einsatz gentechnisch modifizierter Mikroorganismen in der Umwelt, einschliesslich der Freisetzungsproblematik. 1989. GBF Internal Seminar. Braunschweig, Germany.


5.         Development and testing of a chloro- and methyl-benzoate degrading Pseudomonas. 1990. Gentechnology. Kopenhagen, Denmark.


6.         Genetically engineered microorganisms and their potential use in bioremediation processes. 1990. EC Comett Workshop:  The Impact of Biotechnology in the 1990's. University College Cork, Cork Ireland.


7.         Fate and behavior in an activated sludge microcosm of genetically-engineered microorganisms. 1990. Italian Association of Biologists:  Transfer of genetic informations and fate of engineered microorganisms in natural ecosystems. Giardini di Naxos, Italy.


8.         Development of genetically engineered microorganisms and testing of their fate and activity in microcosms. Eurocourse:  Scientific-Technical backgrounds for Biotechnology Regulation. CEC Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.


9.         Application of Biotechnology for Environmental Pollution Treatment. 1991. Dublin, Ireland.


10.        Development of genetically engineered microorganisms and testing of their fate and activity in microcosms. 1992. 2nd International Symposium on the Biosafety Results of Field Tests of Genetically Modified Plants and Microorganisms. Goslar, Germany.


11.        Studies used to predict the potential applicability of genetically engineered microorganisms for in situ bioremediation. 1994. Department of Microbiology.  University of Montana, Bozeman, MT.


12.        Bioremediation of contaminated soils and aquifers using genetically engineered microorganisms. 1996. Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.


13.        In situ bioremediation of aquifers:  Bioaugmentation using genetically engineered microorganisms. 1996. Gordon Research Conference, Environmental Sciences - Water, NH.



Invited Workshop Participant:


1.         Molecular Approaches to Ecosystems Research. 1991. U.S.D.O.E. Workshop. Asilomar, CA.


2.         Strategies and Mechanisms for Field Research in Environmental Bioremediation. 1993. American Academy of Microbiology (ASM). San Antonio, TX.


3.         EPA Workshop on Environmental Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms. 1996. Washington, DC.



Symposia/Workshops Organized:


Environmental Biotechnology, 1990:  EERO-GBF Sponsored Symposium, Braunschweig, Germany.


Molecular Microbial Ecology, 1990:  EERO Workshop, Braunschweig, Germany.





1.         Lovley, D. R., D. F. Dwyer, and M. J. Klug. 1982. Kinetic analysis of competition between sulfate reducers and methanogens for hydrogen in sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43:1371-1379.


2.         Dwyer, D. F. and J. M. Tiedje. 1983. Degradation of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycols by methanogenic consortia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:185-190.


3.         Dwyer, D. F., M. L. Krumme, S. A. Boyd, and J. M. Tiedje. 1986. Kinetics of phenol biodegradation by an immobilized methanogenic consortium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:345-351.


4.         Dwyer, D. F. and J. M. Tiedje. 1986. Metabolism of polyethylene glycol by two anaerobic bacteria, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and a Bacteroides sp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:852-856.


5.         Dwyer, D. F., E. Aerssens, D. R. Shelton, and J. M. Tiedje, 1988. Bioenergetic conditions of butyrate metabolism by an obligately syntrophic anaerobic bacterium in coculture with hydrogen-oxidizing methanogenic and sulfidogenic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:1354-1359.


6.         Dwyer, D. F., F. Rojo, and K. N. Timmis. 1988. Bacteria with new pathways for the degradation of pollutants and their fate in model ecosystems, p. 100-109. In W. Klingmueller (ed.), Risk Assessment for Deliberate Releases . Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


7.         Dwyer, D. F., S. W. Hooper, F. Rojo, and K. N. Timmis. 1988. Fate of geneticaly-engineered bacteria in activated sludge microcosms, p. 267-276. In J. M. Lopez-Pila, E. Seeber, and K. Jander (eds.), Viren und Plasmide in der Umwelt. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.


8.         Timmis, K. N., F. Rojo, J. L. Ramos, M. L. Krumme, and D. F. Dwyer. 1988. Laboratory engineering of bacteria designed to degrade pollutants, p. 251-266. In J. M. Lopez-Pila, E. Seeber, and K. Jander (eds.), Viren und Plasmide in der Umwelt. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.


9.         Dwyer, D. F., F. Rojo, and K. N. Timmis. 1988. Fate and behaviour in an activated sludge microcosm of a genetically-engineered micro-organism designed to degrade aromatic compounds, p. 77-88. In M. Sussman, C. Collins, F. A. Skinner, and D. E. Stewart-Tull (eds.), Release fo Genetically-Engineered Micro-Organisms. Academic Press, London.


10.        Dwyer, D. F. and K. N. Timmis. 1990. Engineering microbes for function and safety in the environment. In H. Mooney and G. Bernardi (eds.), Genetically-Designed Organisms in the Environment. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York.


11.        Ramos, J. L., C. Michan, F. Rojo, D. Dwyer, and K. N. Timmis. 1990. Signal-regulator interactions. Genetic analysis of the effector binding site of xylS, the benzoate-activated positive regulator of Pseudomonas TOL plasmid meta-cleavage pathway operon. J. Mol. Biol. 211:373-382.


12.        Dwyer, D. F., D. Maris, and K. Nuesslein. 1990. Fate and behavior of genetically-engneered microorganisms in an activated sludge microcosm, p. 153-158. In S. Dumontet and E. Landi (eds.), Ingegneria Genetica e Rischio Ambientale. Fotolito Moggio, Rome.


13.        Krumme, M. L., K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1991. Development of microcosms designed to evaluate the effects of adding microorganisms to aquifers as bioremedation agents, p. 7-117 to 7-128. In C. B. Fliermans and T. C. Hazen (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface. Jan. 15-19, 1990, Orlando, FL. WSRC Information Services, Aiken, SC.


14.        Krumme, M. L., R. L. Smith, and D. F. Dwyer. 1991. Survival of a model pollutant-degrading microorganism in a sand and gravel aquifer and in microcosms, p. 144-147. In G. E. Mallard (ed.), U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program:  Proceedings of the Technical Meeting. March 11-15, 1991, Monterey, CA. U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations. 91-4034.


15.        Wagner-Döbler, I., R. Pipke, K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1992. Evaluation of aquatic sediment microcosms and their use in assessing possible effects of introduced microorganisms on ecosystem parameters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1249-1258.


16.        Pipke, R., I. Wagner-Döbler, K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1992. Survival and function of a genetically engineered Pseudomonad in aquatic sediment microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1259-1265.


17.        Nüßlein, K., D. Maris, K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1992. Expression and transfer of engineered catabolic pathways harbored by Pseudomonas spp. introduced into activated sludge microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3380-3386.


18.        Karlson, U., D. F. Dwyer, S. W. Hooper, E. R. B. Moore, K. N. Timmis, and L. D. Eltis. 1993. Two independently regulated cytochromes P-450 in a Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain that degrades 2-ethoxyphenol and 4-methoxybenzoate. J. Bacteriol. 175:1467-1474.


19.        Krumme, M. L., K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1993. Degradation of trichloroethylene by Pseudomonas cepacia G4 and the constitutive mutant strain G4 5223 PR1 in aquifer microcosms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:2746-2749.


20.        Dowling, D. N., R. Pipke, and D. F. Dwyer. 1993.  A DNA module encoding bph genes for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). FEMs Microbiol. Letts. 113:149-154.


21.        Krumme, M. L., R. L. Smith, J. Egestorff, S. A. Thiem, J. M. Tiedje, K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1994. Behavior of pollutant-degrading microorganisms in aquifers;  predictions for genetically engineered organisms. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28:1134-1138.


22.        Dehmel, U., K.-H. Engesser, K. N. Timmis, and D. F. Dwyer. 1994. Cloning and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in metabolism of carboxybiphenyl ethers by Pseudomonas pseudoalcalignes POB310. Arch. Microbiol. 163:35-41.


23.        Dwyer, D. F. 1995. Development of genetically engineered microorganisms and testing of their fate and activity in microcosms, p. 23-30. In F. Campanari et al., (eds.), Scientific-Technical Backgrounds for Biotechnology Regulations. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.


24.        Heuer, H., D. F. Dwyer, K. N. Timmis, and I. Wagner-Döbler. 1995. Efficacy in aquatic microcosms of a genetically engineered pseudomonad applicable for bioremediation. Microb. Ecol. 29:203-220.


25.        Halden, R. U., G. W. Mundfrom, E. G. Peters and D. F. Dwyer. 1995. Monitoring the fate and activity of diaryl ether-degrading bacteria in soil, p. 57-64. In R. F. Wukash (ed.), 50th Purdue Industrial Waste Conference Proceedings. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.


26.        Winkler, J., L. D. Eltis, D. F. Dwyer, M. Rohde. 1995. Quartenary structure and cellular location of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Archiv. Microbiol. 163:65-69.


27.        Halden, R. U., B. G. Fischer and D. F. Dwyer. 1996.  Degradation of carboxydiphenyl ether via bioaugmentation. Proceedings of the North American Water and Environment Congress '96, Anaheim, CA.


28.        Halden, R. U. and D. F. Dwyer. 1997. Biodegradation of dioxin-related compounds:  A review.  Bioremed. J. 1:11-25.


29.        Halden, R. U., B. G. Halden and D. F. Dwyer. 1999. Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2246-2249.


30.        Bankston, J. L. and D. F. Dwyer. 1999. Natural attenuation of trichloroethylene by indigenous wetland bacteria and plants. Purdue Industrial Waste Conference Proceedings.


31.        Halden, R. U., S. R. Tepp, B. G. Halden, and D. F. Dwyer. 1999. Degradation of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in soil by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310 and two modified Pseudomonas strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:3354-3359.


32.        Halden, R. U., E. G. Peters, B. G. Halden, and D. F. Dwyer. 2000. Transformation of mono- and dichlorinated phenoxybenzoates by phenoxybenzoate dioxygenase in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310 and a modified diarylether-metabolizing bacterium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 69:107-112.


33.        Bankston, J. L., D. R. Sola, A. K. Komorr, and D. F. Dwyer. Degradation of trichloroethylene in wetland microcosms containing broad-leaved cattail and eastern cottonwood. Water Research (In press).


34.        Richard D. E. and D. F. Dwyer. Aerated biofiltration for simultaneous removal of iron and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from groundwater. Water Environment Research (In press).


35.        Dwyer, D. F., T. Twesme, H. Stefan, D. R. Langenfeld, and D. R. Sola.  Numerical spreadsheet modeling of natural attenuation for ground water contaminant plumes. Submitted.


36.               Sullivan, J., K. A. Anderson, W. A. Raatz, and D. F. Dwyer. Modeling the transport of pollutant-degrading bacteria in a contaminated sand-gravel aquifer.  In preparation.


37.        Raatz, W. A., J. Sullivan, R. L. Smith, D. LeBlanc and D. F. Dwyer. In situ fate and behavior of genetically engineered microorganisms in a contaminated aquifer. In preparation.





Over 60 Abstracts of Posters and Presentations